How the Minimum Foundation Program transformed the state, Part I

Note: This is the start of a series about the biggest change to ever hit Georgia public school education, the Minimum Foundation Program.

With most of the action happening in the 1950s, the Minimum Foundation Program completely reshaped school systems throughout the states, building new or adding to thousands of schools. It caused widespread consolidation of white high schools and eliminated more than 75 percent of black schools over a 10-year span, from 1949-50 to 1959-60.

How did it happen and why was it so huge?

We’ll start in the years before the Minimum Foundation’s school building program began.

Georgia schools had no money in the 1940s.

There was a teacher pay crisis at the state level in 1939-40.

Upson County borrowed $5,000 to pay its educators in April 1940 when the state failed. Teachers in Bacon County in 1939 were working in March despite being owed 2.5 months of salary. The county school system had previously paid one month of it.

Wartime made funds tighter.

Despite Barney High winning its second straight state boys basketball championship in 1944, Brooks County closed the school and sent the children to Morven High.

Brooks couldn’t pay extra teacher salaries after the state dropped the allotment granted to the system because of falling attendance. At Dixie High, also in Brooks County, home economics and agriculture classes were also dropped at that time because of the lack of money available.

The end of the war resulted in a boom – particularly a baby boom – but Georgia’s schools were in bad shape.

Overcrowding was a major problem.

In 1950, Clinch County estimated the 500 students in the Homerville school were double what the building was designed to hold.

Telfair barracks (LAOSATAT)

Old military barracks were the entirety of the classroom buildings at Telfair County’s Ocmulgee School in 1949, which served grades 1-11 (later 1-12). Ocmulgee had burned, but Telfair lacked the funds to rebuild on its own, necessitating the use of the barracks. (Photo from Look At Our Schools! 1949 … as they are today)

At the complete northern end of the state, Chatsworth was having to use space at the First Baptist Church, in addition to its grammar school regular classrooms, an auditorium and “other space” because of needed classrooms in 1948.

Murray County had passed a $175,000 bond, but there was bickering in the county that $40,500 was going to Chatsworth Grammar.

The April 26, 1948 Chatsworth Times reported:

“The Board of Education is making every effort to spread and stretch the $175,000.00 bond money to take care of the greatest needs in schools over the county. The trust is at least $500,000.00 is needed to put Murray County’s schools in first class shape, Mr. [Superintendent Ray] Bagley stated. The $175,000.00 is being distributed as fairly among the schools as the board thinks it can possibly be done.”

The $40,500 going to Chatsworth Grammar wasn’t even close to filling all of its needs. The school was still going to lack a lunchroom as there wasn’t enough money to build one. The system was stretching its dime to get six classrooms, a library, an office and two restrooms in the deal.

Money was scarce in other ways, too.

Haralson County was so broke in April 1949 that it wanted to stop school bus services.

The Haralson County Tribune described how dire the situation was in its April 28, 1949 edition:

“County School Superintendent Ernest H. Goldin informed [The Haralson County Tribune] a few days ago that it would utterly be impossible to pay transportation costs of the buses in this country next term and for that reason several of the country schools would be reopened to take care of the children in their immediate vicinities. It will mean that a lot of the children who have been riding the buses will either walk to school or their parents will have to transport them.

“”We have gone just as far as we can. In fact, we have scraped the bottom of the barrel, and on top of that, the county system is in debt,” so said Supt. Goldin.”

Goldin and the county school board appealed to State School Superintendent M.D. Collins. Collins said no funds were available to help, adding that he was getting requests from other small school systems.

In June, however, Haralson and Goldin were informed they must run buses if they planned on having schools. State officials said the buses were “integral” to school operations.

With little money to fund new buildings or anything else in their systems, counties were not exactly building schools to grow with the future.

Hazlehurst High burned in 1947. When the new high school – christened Jeff Davis – opened in September 1949, 302 students were put into 15 regular classrooms. Barely two years later, a school survey finished in January 1952 was already recommending a new high school.

The 1952 committee noted about the 1949 Jeff Davis High, “The present site is not expandable appreciably and should not have any more buildings added to it.”

Ringgold Grammar added six classrooms in 1951. The building burned in 1954 and was almost immediately under reconstruction. When the plans were announced in early 1955 for Catoosa County’s building program, Ringgold Grammar already needed 10 more classrooms.

And few were stepping in for black schools.

When money was being spent, almost all tended to go to white schools.

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Middle Hill was one of 41 black schools in Washington County when the Minimum Foundation Program began. Because of delays in the county’s building projects when white Tennille High wasn’t keen on consolidating, Middle Hill operated in this building through the 1957-58 school year. By virtue of being (at least) two teachers, Middle Hill was larger than 54 percent of black schools in the state, which had one teacher in 1950. The building was assuredly nicer than most, too. Middle Hill’s old school building is being used by the church of the same name, the box air conditioning units a later addition.

A lawsuit was hanging over Irwin County’s head in 1950 over conditions at black schools (dismissed in December 1950). In June 1950, voters approved bonds to improve schools in the county, namely the building of a new consolidated white high school.

The bonds approved issued $130,000 for the white high school, $20,000 for improvements at Irwinville, $5,000 each for white schools at Mystic and Holt and $30,000 to replace the black high school.

Even with a lawsuit that threatened to change the very fabric of the county’s being, Irwin felt compelled to only spend 16 percent of the bond on black students. And all of that percentage was going to one building. Irwin County operated 11 black schools as of June 1950, according to the Seventy-Eighth and Seventy-Ninth Annual Reports of the Department of Education.

In October 1948, Mitchell County’s Board of Education refused to even provide windows or doors for the African-American Greenough School.

A committee from Greenough asked for 22 windows and seven doors for the buildings, which they said did not have any. After discussing the matter, the board told the committee to ask around in the community and “make out somehow as there were no funds available for work on school buildings.”

(Later in the same report, the Mitchell BOE was said to sell two old school buses for $1,000. New buses had recently been purchased. The Seventy-Eighth and Seventy-Ninth Annual Reports, in giving its report on school bus transportation for each county, noted that Mitchell County’s school system provided no buses for black students.)

Clearly education in Georgia was underfunded and unequal. There had to be a remedy to fix horrible situations occurring all over the state.

Sources: The Macon Telegraph – April 28, 1940; The Alma Times – March 23, 1939; The Quitman Free Press – Aug. 31, 1944; Clinch County News – March 3, 1950; Jeff Davis County Ledger – Sept. 22, 1949, Jan. 10, 1952; The Ocilla Star – June 1, 1950, Dec. 28, 1950; The Chatsworth Times – Aug. 26, 1948; The Haralson County Tribune – Apr. 28, 1949, June 2, 1949; The Catoosa County News – Aug. 2, 1951, Jan. 20, 1955; The Camilla Enterprise – Oct. 8, 1948; Seventy-Eighth and Seventy-Ninth Annual Reports of the Department of Education; Report on Georgia Schools (1960); Look At Our Schools! 1949 … as they are today.

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Wartime message from Quitman

We bring you this special wartime bulletin from the January 14, 1943 Quitman Free Press and the Ilex Theatre:

1943-01-14 The Quitman Free Press (go to the movies)

The Ilex, whose listed history on Cinema Treasures says it was named for a brand of cattle, has since been demolished.

Possibly the biggest reflection upon changes, though, is the claim that everyone in Quitman is located within a mile of the building. Or the suggestion that some Quitman ladies need to trim down, with a scale located right in the lobby for their convenience.

School stories: South Side

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South Side in Brooks County was barely visible from the road in 2010.

The woods of Brooks County hold secrets.

The county seat and main city of Brooks is Quitman. There are other towns – Boston, Morven, Dixie, Barney, part of Pavo.

But Brooks is a large county and a rural one.There are lots of pine trees and lots of places to get lost. It is perhaps not surprising that there were nearly 40 African-American schools in 1950 within its borders.

A better effort was made on behalf of Brooks’ white schools. Only eight of those existed in 1950, half of those large enough to have high schools.

The other half, however, were all four-teacher institutions, existing at Barney, East Side, Sand Hill and South Side, the latter of which might have actually been Southside. (Spellings had little consistency.)

South Side opened in 1942, strangely highlighted in a brief history of Brooks County Schools, and probably one of very few schools to be built in the year after World War II began. It seems to have combined Nankin and Palmetto schools and was listed as carrying seven teachers its first year.

The student load did not last long.

The 1943-44 Georgia Educational Directory said there were six teachers at South Side. In 1945-46, the number was down to four. The number did not rebound at the war’s conclusion and four it would stay for the rest of its history.

South Side’s history would be short-lived.

With Georgia preferring its elementary schools to have at least one teacher per grade, many rural locations were in trouble. Though South Side’s included grades have not been found yet, a guess of 1-7 or 1-8 is probably not far off. Four teachers meant even more trouble.

If that was not trouble enough, other factors were at play as Quitman city and Brooks County worked to figure a merger as the school building programs were finishing.

South Side was not necessarily being maintained well, based on a sanitation report printed in The Quitman Free Press not even seven years after its opening.

A survey of all schools in the county listed South Side’s water and bathroom situation as having a drilled well and electric pump, but “unsanitary pit privies.”

The opening of the new, consolidated high school in Quitman meant that there was now more room at the nicer town schools to house children.

No stink seems to have been made when Brooks County announced in March 1959 that South Side would be closing, along with Barney, East Side and Sand Hill. South Side students were divided between Dixie and Quitman.

Brooks would never use the South Side building again as a school. Its status post-consolidation is unknown, though its condition in 2010 seems to suggest that someone did maintain the building for at least some time before the woods grew around it.

Though rural, South Side was not totally alone. From 1953-59, a very short distance separated it from Empress, a consolidated African-American school. Empress itself closed around 1967.

Sources – The Quitman Free Press – Jan. 6, 1949; March 19, 1959; Multiple editions of the Georgia Educational Directory; Greater Brooks.

1950s high school consolidation plans that almost made it

The 1950s were a momentous time in Georgia. Thanks to the Minimum Foundation

Elberton

Elberton High School, year unknown. Its burning brought about a union of school systems and changed building plans.

Program and the offers of state money to build desperately needed schools in Georgia, school systems were changing.

The state, wanting to upgrade white and black education, was trying to rid the small, rural high schools scattered throughout its borders and go with something more streamlined and cost effective.

Early days of this program were wild ones. The state had its beliefs about what should happen with the schools. School systems had others. Sometimes plans didn’t quite work out.

GORDON CENTRAL … 30 YEARS EARLIER

A pair of ideas were floated around Gordon County in the early 1950s. One was a total consolidation of Calhoun and the mostly small county high schools of Gordon into one building. The county and city both gave a stamp of approval to the idea in 1950.

However, in December 1951, Calhoun rejected the idea of straight consolidation. To do so would be for the city and county to merge school systems and Calhoun did not want to give up its independence. A contract, though, to bring the smallest of the schools to Calhoun, that was something they could get behind.

Calhoun city specifically mentioned Resaca, Sugar Valley, Oostanaula, Liberty, Belwood and Plainville. Yes, all of those were high schools in 1950s Gordon County. The county also boasted white high schools at Red Bud, Fairmount and Sonoraville. Those three were large enough to stand on their own. The state was OK with that plan, though the Minimum Foundation Program really would have liked to see the school boards merge.

In April 1952, though, the county voted to build a consolidated high school for Resaca, Sugar Valley, Oostanaula, Liberty, Belwood and Plainville. Fairmount, Red Bud and Sonoraville were still left alone. That plan might have come to fruition, if disaster had not struck in December of that year.

On December 15, 1952, Sonoraville’s school burned down. Suddenly, the county needed the money that might have gone to a county high school for a total school plant at Sonoraville. After that, the central high school dream began to fall apart.

Just as the 1952-53 school year was ending, Plainville asked to consolidate its high school with Calhoun. In July, Liberty practically begged to do the same. Despite space being scarce, Calhoun agreed to take on both.

When Calhoun’s needed space came through in 1956 via a new school, the remainder of the small county schools followed: Resaca, Sugar Valley, Oostanaula, Belwood and Sonoraville.

A real Gordon Central finally opened in 1985 for the county students. Red Bud and Fairmount lost their own high schools in 1991. Sonoraville, the school whose building loss perhaps ended the county high attempt of the 1950s, returned as a high school in 2005.

(The Gordon County News – Aug. 3, 1950; Oct. 9, 1950; Dec. 13, 1951; Apr. 22, 1952; Dec. 16, 1952; June 2, 1953; July 14, 1953; Nov. 22, 1956)

NORTH GWINNETT IN BUFORD, DACULA PART OF CENTRAL GWINNETT

There were three situations that would seem impossible now that came out of Gwinnett County’s school building and high school consolidation plans. Two didn’t happen. One did, albeit briefly.

West Gwinnett, a school that existed under that name from 1957-62 initially combined Norcross and Duluth. For a single school year, the two were together, until Duluth talked its way out of the situation. Norcross hung on to the West Gwinnett name for a few years more.

The other two major consolidations officially considered were: (1) Dacula to close its high school and join up with the bustling Central Gwinnett composed of Bethesda (by then a non-high school), Lilburn and Lawrenceville. And (2), North Gwinnett to be located at Buford, composed of Buford, Sugar Hill and Suwanee.

In December 1954, Gwinnett still had not chosen a site for North Gwinnett. Seven months later, it was announced that a contract that had been agreed upon between the county and Buford’s city system was null and void. The original plans were to alter and add on to Buford High.

No explanation was given by Lawrenceville’s News-Herald, but Buford balking on giving up its independence likely figured in, if it wasn’t the main reason.

Likewise, an exact explanation on when and how Dacula and Lilburn were dropped from Central Gwinnett has not yet been found. Both cities (and Duluth) were objecting to consolidation in 1952.

Lilburn lasted until 1966, when its students became part of Berkmar. Dacula remained small before booming into a very large school of its own.

(The News-Herald – Dec. 18, 1952; Dec. 17, 1954; July 7, 1955)

BARROW COUNTY HIGH

The state thought it was best for the county of Barrow to have a single white high school but with separate city and county boards of education, an agreement had to be made between them. The state heavily requested that these agreements be for 20 years. Full high schools existed at Statham (county) and Winder (city), with several ninth grade-level schools dotting the county.

At an impasse with the city in 1952 because of the length of the agreement, Barrow County made its own plans to maintain a high school. As late as August, the Barrow board decided to consolidate its county students into two sites.

Statham would get Holsenbeck students. Auburn would receive Bethlehem, County Line, Matthews and Victron. A full high school would exist at both sites, but under the single name of Barrow County High School.

The dual-town school would only be temporary, until Barrow County received state funds to build a new high school.

Registration was set for Aug. 28 with school to start Sept. 1. One the very eve of registration, the city and county came to a 20-year agreement. All county high school students (but not elementary) were welcome to attend Winder tuition-free, even those at Statham.

Statham maintained its high school and the county schools stayed the same.

The city and county eventually received funds at different times from the State School Building Authority. Anticipating full high school consolidation, Winder became Winder-Barrow in 1955. Statham closed as a high school in 1957.

(The Winder News – Aug. 21, 1952; Aug. 28, 1952)

BROOKS COUNTY HIGH AND QUITMAN HIGH AS SEPARATE ENTITIES

Brooks County and Quitman city, like many others, existed as separate school districts in the 1950s. Quitman had its own white elementary and high school, Brooks County had three white high schools at Morven, Dixie and Barwick.

Brooks County planned for a consolidated high school, buying land in January 1954 to house the building just outside Quitman on the Morven highway (GA 76). Initial reports indicated that the city was willing to join in and perhaps find some land near the present Quitman High for a new high school building.

By March 1954, the plans stalled, apparently at least partially over school location. The city wanted the school in another location because of traffic concerns. Between this and the next major squabble in late 1956, the city had built the African-American Washington Street High to replace Brooks High.

Some hope towards board consolidation took place before the November 1956 struggle over board representation. Quitman thought that having just two reps from the city were too few. Any deals were now off.

The county went ahead with plans for a consolidated high school for Barwick, Morven and Dixie, calling for bids in January 1958. A year later, the new high school was finished, but was not to be occupied until the 1959-60 school year.

Another attempt was made to combine boards through a Quitman city referendum. It was defeated soundly, 385-144. Not so fast, though. The vote wasn’t what Quitman wanted. The referendum called for a merger of the systems.

A straw vote taken the next week, which came out 288-135 in favor, provided for a temporary merger until a constitutional amendment made it permanent. The merger was made official in March 1959. Quitman would be going to the new Brooks County High. School started in the new building Aug. 31.

The merger did not just affect the white schools. Brooks County had planned for its own black high school, coincidentally located right next to the Washington Street plant. The new building also in 1959. It and the 1955 Washington building served as an elementary and high school, though rural elementaries continued to exist in Brooks.

(Quitman Free Press – Feb. 11, 1954; March 18, 1954; Nov. 29, 1956; Jan. 16, 1958; Jan. 8, 1959; Jan. 15, 1959; Jan. 22, 1959; March 19, 1959. Thomasville Times-Enterprise – Jan. 22, 1954)

CONSOLIDATION OF CARROLLTON, TEMPLE AND MOUNT ZION

When Carroll County and Carrollton city asked for a survey of their school systems in 1951, the results would set off seven years of fireworks.

The survey recommended three high schools: Villa Rica, which would include students from Temple; Bowdon and a consolidated high school of Carrollton, Whitesburg, Roopville and Mount Zion.

The protests against such a plan started immediately. Meanwhile, Carrollton started on its Minimum Foundation Foundation plans to expand Carrollton High.

In March 1953, the county board unanimously agreed to go along with beliefs of the people, that all of its rural high schools be maintained. There was some bending and flexing at a school board meeting three months later. Board representatives from Whitesburg and Mount Zion both said they understood consolidation if it meant their schools were not accredited. Georgia had recently introduced a plan that in the future, any schools with an average daily attendance under 100 would lose accreditation. Temple, Whitesburg, Roopville and Mount Zion were all under that number.

Despite the seeming progress, the county school board presented a plan to the State Board of Education in August 1953 to allow them to keep all the rural high schools. The state rejected it.

Soon, it seemed that the county was resigned to an agreement to make the three high schools plan work. Sites were examined for a new school site. But State Representative C.C. Perkins got involved with the school situation and began pushing the county to resist consolidation.

The situation grew dramatically worse in March 1955.

At a meeting with the State Board of Education in Atlanta, Perkins got into a fistfight with Dorsey Duffey, a Carroll County resident who supported consolidation.

Perkins began focusing on saving Mount Zion and building up the school. He was even able to get funds to start a football program in late 1955.

The county continued to fight against consolidation, resolving to keep all high schools in March 1957. Then in July 1957, Temple’s school burned.

How exactly the county came around to support the dissolution of the Roopville and Whitesburg schools is unknown at this time. Temple had gotten a bit of industry in the town, helping push its attendance. The football efforts at Mount Zion possibly saved it.

Central High School was finished in the fall of 1958, but with equipment not scheduled to arrive until the end of the calendar year, the county decided to wait until the 1959-60 school year to move in.

(Carroll County Georgian – March 22, 1951; Sept. 6, 1951; May 8, 1952; March 5, 1953; June 18, 1953; Aug. 20, 1953; Nov. 5, 1953; Feb. 11, 1954; March 17, 1955; Dec. 15, 1955; March 7, 1957. Carroll Times-Free Press – July 30, 1957; Sept. 16, 1958)

ELBERT COUNTY AND ELBERTON

Separate county and city school boards were not uncommon in the early 1950s. Many that did have separate boards also had rural towns with their own high schools. When trying to modernize education in the state and cut some waste, Georgia asked many of these separate systems to combine.

Some were fine with this idea, realizing that it really was for the best. Some were stubborn, hating that they would have to give up their independence. Some were Elberton and Elbert County.

Georgia wanted Elberton and Elbert to become one with their schools, but neither side was willing to agree.

In October 1952, the county announced plans for county-wide white and black high schools. Sites had already been purchased. Unlike in the cases of most other systems, Georgia refused to listen to the Elbert County requests until Elberton submitted theirs. The problem was, the city had no immediate needs and had no plans to file anytime soon.

Elbert County started negotiating with the city for a merger. After a year of talks, it seemed like they had hammered out their differences on picking board members and a superintendent. Elberton also apparently found some needs and submitted plans to the state. More than $1 million was approved for both systems. High schools were still separate.

No work had started on either system in 1954 when there was perhaps an omen of things to come.

Elberton High, formal name Central High, was severely damaged in a fire Oct. 2. Because of airtight doors, classrooms held, but repairs were extensive: plaster on all three floors had to be replaced, a new stairwell had to be constructed, there was damage to the roof, all windows (save for one) and doorways had to be replaced and the building needed to be rewired. Work was completed in a week.

Would the fire convince the systems to combine? It was a put to a vote in the general election a month later. City voters favored consolidation, but the county did not. Approval by both was needed, though the overall tally favored consolidation.

In October 1955, construction was on the immediate horizon, with bids for projects up. Then on November 7, Elberton High burned again, this time completely.

A high school had not been planned by the Elberton city system. Now one was desperately needed as students were being taught in several churches. On January 4, 1956, city citizens voted to abolish Elberton’s city school system. Elbert County and Elberton became one in July 1956.

The county high school was now a reality, but not as originally planned. Instead of being built in the county, a new school would go up on the site of the old Elberton High. Both systems had preferred that location. Similarly, the black high school site was moved to the city in June 1956, near Blackwell Memorial.

Bids were soon taken for construction and Elbert County High opened in 1957.

(The Elberton Star – Oct. 14, 1952; Nov. 14, 1952; Oct. 30, 1953; Dec. 22, 1953; Oct. 5, 1954; Oct. 29, 1954; Nov. 5, 1954; Nov. 10, 1955; Jan. 6, 1956; June 19, 1956)

The Georgia High School Basketball Project blog is a companion to the Georgia High School Basketball Project.